Esoteric Philosopher: Study of the Endless Path of Wisdom

"racial purity"
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It may therefore be assumed that any attempt to isolate a race or to enforce so-called "racial purity" is foredoomed to failure. EXT 194.

1941 brought the attempted full externalisation of the Black Lodge on our planet the Earth.  Such an externalization and materialization onto the physical plane, if it were successful, would have meant catastrophic changes for humanity.
 
1. No disciple or Initiate would have been able to incarnate to work on behalf of the White Lodge.
 
2. The Hierarchy of Light would have to withdraw for an indefinite period of time.
 
3. Humanity would of been plunged into a dark age of terror and cruelty and domination by a relatively small group of evil beings.
 
4. This group would of been known by some of these names. 'The Master Race,' 'Super Race,' 'The Arian Race of racial purity.'
 
5. This would of meant far greater numbers being exterminated than the 6,000,000+ that were destroyed by the time of their defeat.
 
It would of also meant that all who did not meet the strict guidelines of their so called racial superiority, that of the dark lodge, would if not exterminated, be thrown into slavery of a type and scale probably never imagined before by the human race. Subservient of course to the ends of the dark lodge of materiality and destruction. 
 
The experimentation and destruction undertaken by the Nazis was the culmination of the seperativeness, selfishness and cruelty which had reached an apex upon the shoulders of the human race in total and for which we all, as reincarnating human entities were responsible.
 
This paper draws from a number of sources to amplify and clearly elucidate the intention of establishing the so called "Super Race" of the dark brothers on this planet, at the expense of the would be subservient and sub human being. The work of western Eugenicists are also briefly covered. How closely their work possibly could of paralleled the work of the Third Reich if given opportunity we may wonder at. There are of course modern day parallels to be drawn with human cloning and screening for genetic and hereditary diseases. Indeed, something for us all to concider. JPC.
 
The Axis World Order:
 
The totalitarian order must go because it is contrary to the spiritual vision. The world order, as visioned by Hitler, is based upon the subjection of the weak to the rule of a super-Germany; it is one in which the life of the little nations will be allowed to go on just in so far as they serve the need of Germany. The lesser Axis powers are permitted existence only because they benefit German aims - Italy, to give Germany scope in the Mediterranean; Japan, to handle the Asiatic problem which is too large for Germany to handle alone. It is an order whose intention is that the best of all industrial and agricultural products shall go to Germany and the unwanted residue to the little nations. It is an order in which the educational processes will be controlled by the dominant super-race. All departments of knowledge will be subordinated to the glorification of Germany. Germany will be portrayed as the seed of all world glory, and as the ruthless savior of mankind; the beauties of war, of struggle and of physical strength will be emphasized, and these so-called admirable objectives of the human spirit will be developed to produce a race of men in whom the "effeminate" beauties of loving kindness and wise consideration for others will find no place.  
 
I would call your attention to the teaching now being given to the German youth. Might is right. The German belongs to the super-race, and all other races are inferior. Only a chosen aristocracy should be permitted the privilege of education and of rule. The masses of the people are no more than cattle and exist only to be slaves of the superior race. War is to men what childbirth is to women. War is a natural process and therefore eternally right. All sources of supply must be controlled by Germany, and consequently even those nations at present neutral must be brought under the German sphere of influence. The totalitarian powers will dominate the economic system of the world and control all imports and exports. The standard of living in both hemispheres will be lowered; everything will be related to the good of Germany, and no other nation will be considered. Christian teaching and Christian ethics must necessarily be eliminated, because Germany regards Christianity and its divine Founder as effeminate and weak, as emphasizing the softer qualities of human nature, and as responsible for the decadence of all nations, except Germany. Christianity must also be overthrown because it is based on Jewish sources; the rule of Christ must come to an end, because only the rule of force is right.
 
In the world order of the Axis powers, the individual has no rights; he has no freedom except in so far as he serves the state; there will be no liberty of thought or conscience, all issues will be decided by the state, and the private citizen will have no right to an opinion. Men will be drafted like slaves into the service of the state. Such is the picture of the order which the Axis powers are preparing to impose upon the world, and to this their own words testify. Only insight into the true nature of this crisis, a determination to face the facts, and fearlessness will suffice to defeat Hitler. This conquering fearlessness must be based on a recognition of the spiritual values involved, on a belief in God, and on a common sense which is determined to establish security, right human relations and liberty.
 
It is important that people face up to the facts immediately. They must realize what is the nature of the world order which Hitler is preparing to enforce, and what lies ahead of humanity if the Axis powers triumph. It is essential that the little children of the world be rescued from this over-shadowing evil and from the false education to which they will be subjected if the totalitarian powers hold Europe in their grasp. The intensive culture given to the youth of Germany during the past twenty years has proved the effects of environing mental attitudes. These boys who roll their tanks and fly their planes over the countries of Europe and who wage war on women and children are the product of an educational system, and are therefore the victims of an evil process.
 
The children of Germany must be rescued from the future which Hitler plans, as well as the children of other countries; the women of Germany must be set free from fear, as must the women in other lands; the population of Germany must also be liberated from the evil rule of Hitler. This is recognized by the allied nations. Make no mistake. The German is as dear to the heart of humanity, to God, to Christ and to all right thinking people as are any other people. The German must be rescued from Hitler's world order as much as the Pole, the Jew, the Czech or any captive nation. In effecting this freedom, the allied nations and the neutral powers must preserve the spirit of goodwill, even when using force, which is the only means of conquest the totalitarian powers understand. EXT 190.
 
There is much in the Jew and the German which is alike. The German regards himself as a member of the "super race" whilst the orthodox Jew regards himself as the Chosen People. The German emphasizes "racial purity" and so have the Jews down the ages. UA 121.
 
The contrast is the enforced world order, emphasized by the so-called "German super-race," which will centralize the world around Germany, for the aggrandizement of Germany, for the expansion of the German living space and the supply of Germany's economic need - an order enforced by terror, by cruelty and death, ignoring the needs of humanity as a whole and the rights of all other nations, and sacrificing the whole world, if need be, to the glory of Germany. EXT 239.
 
The doctrine, for instance, of the super-race was interpreted to mean the superiority of the German nation and culture to all in the West, whilst the divinity of the Sons of Heaven (the Japanese race) was emphasized to all in the East. The bewildered peoples of both nations were led to believe that they had a great and spiritual mission to dominate the world. EXT 424.
 
A tendency - centuries old - among the Germanic peoples to dominate, to take what is not their own, to regard themselves as unique, superior, and as embodying a super-race; there is also a fixed determination, on behalf of their own interests, to plunge other nations and races into war. Today they have achieved a planetary war. EXT 432.
 
Under the present situation, incident to the war and starting around the year 1900, there is a constant and ceaseless migration of peoples from one place to another and from one country to another, taking place today not only individually but also in group formation. This tends to produce an inevitable fusion, blending and producing interracial life, thus constantly offsetting and negating what has been called "racial purity." This attempt at an impossible racial segregation and purity is a misnomer, for the past renders it impossible; mixed blood runs in all veins, but the effort to produce this is the keynote of certain of the more modern cultures. These fortunately are in a minority, for they are anti-evolutionary and their objective is quite impossible of achievement, for they do not start with any pure strain. This tendency towards racial segregation (so noticeable in the Jew and the German) is a form of isolationism and necessarily an aspect of materialism, and is related to the personality of humanity and not to the soul aspect. DN 64.
 
The static stabilizing tendency of Germany showed for instance in her futile effort to preserve a racial purity now, as then, impossible. DN 53.
 
It may therefore be assumed that any attempt to isolate a race or to enforce so-called "racial purity" is foredoomed to failure. EXT 194.
 

Francis Galton And Eugenics:
 
Sir Francis Galton FRS (February 16, 1822 - January 17, 1911) was an English explorer, statistician, anthropologist, creator of modern eugenics (he coined the term), investigator of the human mind, founder of psychometrics, the science of measuring mental faculties.
 
He was born into the Darwin -- Wedgwood family near Sparkbrook, Birmingham and was Charles Darwin's half first cousin, his mother and Darwin's father having been children of Erasmus Darwin by separate marriages. His father was Samuel Tertius Galton, son of Samuel "John" Galton. He was advised at a young age by Charles Darwin that he ought to "read Mathematics like a house on fire," and was very much influenced by Darwin's ideas of natural selection when they came into print.
 
His inquiries into the mind involved detailed recording of subjects' own explanations for whether and how their minds dealt with things such as mental imagery.
 
Galton's 1869 work, Hereditary Genius, popularised historiometry and also formed the beginning of his thoughts on eugenics and heredity. In statistics, Galton was the first to describe and explain the common phenomenon of regression toward the mean in the 1870s and 1880s. After examining forearm and height measurements, Galton introduced the concept of correlation in 1888. His statistical study of the probability of extinction of surnames led to the concept of Galton-Watson stochastic processes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
 
Eugenics:
 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Eugenics (from the Greek for "well-born") is a philosophy which advocates the manipulation of human reproduction for the purposes of attempting to improve the human species over generations in regards to hereditary features. The term was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton (though the idea had been put forward by Galton some time before), and eventually came to encompass the idea of using social policies which fell into the categories of "positive" eugenics (encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often) and "negative" eugenics (discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing). In the first half of the twentieth century, numerous countries enacted eugenics policies and programs, though after its apparent association with the violence of Nazi Germany, the philosophy has become almost universally reviled. Modern inquiries into the potential use of genetic engineering have led to an increased invocation of the history of eugenics in the discourse of bioethics, usually as a cautionary tale.
 
Development of Galton's theory:
 
Selective breeding was suggested as early as the time of Plato, who believed that human reproduction should be controlled by authorities. He proposed that the selection should be performed by a fake lottery, controlled by the government, so that the people's feelings wouldn't be hurt by awareness of selection principles. Other instances of eugenics-like programs in ancient times include the city of Sparta's mythological practice of leaving weak babies outside of city borders to die.
 
Sir Francis Galton initially developed the ideas of eugenics. But it was work by Sir Francis Galton in the 1860s and 1870s which systemized these ideas and practices along the lines of new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his cousin Charles Darwin. A popular interpretation of Darwin's work was that the mechanisms of natural selection are potentially thwarted by human civilization (Darwin himself equivocated on the issue). Since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest. According to eugenicists, this practice would lead to an unbalanced proportion of weak or otherwise unfit citizens in society. Eugenics thus proposed actions to fix this imbalance. This basic principle inspired numerous and very diverse philosophies, scientific or pseudoscientific theories and social practices.
 
Galton's theory, which he first sketched out in his 1865 article "Hereditary Talent and Character," and elaborated in his 1869 book Hereditary Genius, began by studying the way in which human intellectual, moral, and personality traits tended to run in families. Galton's basic argument was that "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans (though neither he nor Darwin had yet a working model of this type of heredity), and that just as one could use artificial selection to exaggerate traits in animals, one could expect similar results applying such models to humans. Furthermore, according to Galton, society itself contained many conditions which were encouraging "dysgenic" conditions, claiming that the less intelligent were out-reproducing the more intelligent, a catastrophe in Darwinian terms. However, Galton did not yet elaborate on the methods which would be specifically used for this endeavor, and hoped that if social mores could change so that people could see the importance of breeding, at some point in the future a solution would be found.
 
Galton's formulation of eugenics, the term he coined for the philosophy in 1883, and was based in a strong statistical approach, influenced heavily by Adolphe Quetelet's "social physics." Unlike Quetelet, however, Galton did not exhalt the "average man," but decried him as mediocre. Galton and his statistical heir, Karl Pearson, developed what was known as the biometrical approach to eugenics, which developed new and complex statistical models (later exported to wholly different fields) to describe the heredity of traits. With the re-discovery of the hereditary laws of Gregor Mendel, however, there split into two separate camps of eugenics advocates, one of statisticians, the other of biologists (the former thought the latter to be exceptionally crude in their mathematical models, while the latter thought the former to be ignorant of actual biology). By the 1920s, however, these had been reconciled into a single model by the work of Ronald Fisher, who developed more powerful statistical models based on the Mendelian laws.
 
Eugenics developed to refer to human selective reproduction with the intent to create children with desirable traits, especially those that best meet an ideal of racial purity ("positive" eugenics), as well as elimination of undesirable traits ("negative" eugenics). "Negative" eugenic policies in the past have ranged from segregation to sterilization to even genocide. "Positive" eugenic policies have been typically awards or bonuses for "fit" parents after having another child, though even relatively innocuous things like marriage counseling have had early links with eugenic ideology. Eugenics differed from what would later be known as Social Darwinism on the question of activism: while both claimed that intelligence was hereditary, eugenics claimed that new policies were needed to actively change the status quo towards a more "eugenic" state, whereas the Social Darwinists argued that society itself would naturally "check" the problem of "dysgenics" if no welfare policies were in place (for example, the poor might reproduce more, but would have higher mortality rates).
 
20th century advocacy and policy:
One of the earliest modern advocates of eugenic ideas (before they were labeled as such) was Alexander Graham Bell, best known as one of the inventors of the telephone. In 1881, Bell investigated the rate of deafness on Martha's Vineyard, Mass. From this he concluded that deafness was hereditary in nature and recommended a marriage prohibition against the deaf (in his "Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human Race"). Like many other early eugenicists, he proposed controlling immigration for the purpose of eugenics, and warned that boarding schools for the deaf could be considered possible breeding places of a deaf human race.
 
Germany under Adolf Hitler was infamous for its eugenics programs, which attempted to maintain a "pure" German race. Among other acts, the Nazis performed extensive experimentation on live human beings to test their genetic theories. During the 1930s and 1940s the Nazi regime forcibly sterilized hundreds of thousands of people who they viewed as mentally "unfit," and killed tens of thousands of the institutionalized disabled in their compulsory euthanasia programs. They also implemented a number of "positive" eugenics policies, giving awards to "Aryan" women who had large numbers of children, and even encouraged a service in which "racially pure" single women would become impregnated by SS officers. Many of their concerns for eugenics and racial hygiene were also explicitly present in their systematic killing of millions of "undesirable" Europeans, including Jews, gypsies, and homosexuals, during the Holocaust, and much of the killing equipment and methods employed in the death camps were first developed in their euthanasia program.
 
The nation that had the second largest eugenics movement was the United States. Beginning with Connecticut in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was "epileptic, imbecile or feeble-minded" from marrying. In 1898, Charles B. Davenport, a prominent American biologist, assumed the role of director of a biological research station based in Cold Spring Harbor. Here he began experimenting with evolution of plants and animals. In 1904, Davenport received funds from the Carnegie Institution to found the Station for Experimental Evolution. 1910 heralded the Eugenics Record Office, Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin began to promote eugenics. In years to come the ERO collected a mass of family pedigrees, which concluded that those that were unfit were from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit" (Davenport favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods, Goddard favored segregation in his The Kallikak Family, Grant favored all of the above and more -- even entertaining the idea of extermination). Though we now see the methodology and research methods as being highly flawed, in their time they were seen as legitimate scientific research, though they did have their scientific detractors (notably Thomas Hunt Morgan).
 
In 1924, the Immigration Restriction Act was passed, with eugenicists for the first time playing a central role in the Congressional debate, as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from Eastern and Southern Europe. This reduced the number of immigrants from abroad to fifteen percent of that of previous years, to control the proportion of "unfit" individuals entering the country. The new Act strengthened the existing laws prohibiting race mixing in an attempt to maintain the gene pool. Eugenic considerations also lay behind the adoption of incest laws in much of the USA, and were used to justify many anti-miscegenation laws.
 
Some states also practiced sterilization of "imbeciles" for much of the 20th century. The US Supreme Court ruled in the 1927 Buck v. Bell case that the state of Virginia could sterilize those they thought unfit. Between 1907 and 1963, the most significant era of eugenic sterilization, over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States. A favorable report of the results of the sterilizations in California, by far the most sterilizing state, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe, and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that a wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane. When Nazi administrators were on trial for war-crimes in Nuremberg after World War II, they justified their mass-sterilizations (over 450,000 in less than a decade) by pointing a finger at the USA as their inspiration.
 
Almost all non-Catholic western nations adopted some eugenics legislation. In July 1933, Britain passed a law allowing for the involuntary sterilization of "hereditary and incurable drunkards, sexual criminals, lunatics, and those suffering from an incurable disease which would be passed on to their offspring . . ."  Sweden forcibly sterilized 62,000 "unfits" as part of a eugenics program over a forty year period. Similar incidents occurred in Canada, Australia, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Switzerland and Iceland for people the government declared to be mentally deficient. Singapore practiced a limited form of "positive" eugenics which involved encouraging marriage between college graduates in the hope that they would produce better children.
 
Various authors, notably Stephen Jay Gould, have repeatedly asserted that restrictions on immigration passed in the United States during the 1920s (which were overhauled in 1965) were motivated by the goals of eugenics, in particular a desire to exclude "inferior" races from the national gene pool. In the early part of the twentieth century the United States and Canada began to receive far higher numbers of southern and eastern European immigrants. Influential eugenicists like Lothrop Stoddard and Harry Laughlin (who was appointed as an expert witness for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization in 1920) presented arguments that these were inferior races who would pollute the national gene pool if their numbers went unrestricted. It is argued that this stirred both Canada and the United States into passing laws creating a hierarchy of nationalities, rating them from the most desirable Anglo-Saxon and Nordic peoples to the Chinese and Japanese immigrants who were almost completely banned from entering the country. However, several people, in particular Franz Samelson, Mark Snyderman, and Richard Herrnstein have argued, based on their examination of the records of the Congressional debates over immigration policy, that in fact Congress gave virtually no consideration to these factors. Rather, they maintain, the restrictions were motivated primarily by a desire to maintain the US's cultural integrity against the heavy influx of foreigners.
 
Some who disagree with the idea of eugenics in general contend that eugenics legislation still had benefits; namely, that advocates such as Margaret Sanger (founder of Planned Parenthood of America) found it a useful tool to urge the legalization of contraception. In its time, eugenics was seen by many as scientific and progressive, the natural application of knowledge about breeding to the arena of human life. Before the death camps of World War II, the idea that eugenics, in an ultimate expression, could lead to genocide was not taken as a serious possibility.
 
Contemporary backlash:
 
Though eugenics has been almost universally reviled following its extensive use by Nazi Germany, there is suspicion of whether eugenic sentiments or notions persist under other names in modern culture. Soon after World War II, many eugenicists in the United States, for example, realized that eugenics was rapidly losing popularity and created the term crypto-eugenics to describe what they thought must then be done: taking eugenics "underground." Many prominent eugenicists became highly-respected anthropologists, biologists, and geneticists in the post-war world, such as Robert Yerkes in the USA and Otmar von Verschuer in Germany. Californian eugenicist Paul Popenoe became the founder of modern marriage counseling, a career change which initially grew out of his eugenic interests (promoting "healthy marriages" between "fit" couples) but later became an honest interest independent of what initially drew him to the topic. Occasionally various opinions on race, immigration policy, poverty, crime, or mental health are labeled as being "crypto-eugenics" though it is not a very heavily used term (often labeling as "eugenics" works well enough for the purposes of the accuser).
 
High school and college textbooks from the 1920s through the 1940s frequently contained chapters touting the scientific progress to be made by applying eugenic principles to the population. Many early scientific journals devoted to the study of heredity in general were run by eugenicists and featured eugenics articles alongside studies of heredity in non-human organisms. After World War II, when eugenics fell out of popularity, most references to eugenics were removed from both the textbooks and future editions of the journals (whose names also often changed as well -- for example, "Eugenics Quarterly" became "Social Biology" in 1969, a journal which still exists today though looks little like its predecessor). Notable members of the American Eugenics Society (1922-1994) in the second half of the 20th Century included Joseph Fletcher, originator of Situational ethics, Dr. Clarence Gamble, of the Procter and Gamble fortune, and Garrett Hardin, population control advocate and author of The Tragedy of the Commons.
 
Post-WWII eugenics:
 
The history of eugenics, and the concept of eugenics, have become more heavily discussed in the last ten years as knowledge about genetics has significantly advanced. Endeavors such as the Human Genome Project have again made the possibility of effective modification of the human species seem real, at least in the minds of many commentators (see, for example, Gattaca), just as Darwin's initial theory of evolution did in the 1880s, and the rediscovery of Mendel's laws did in the earliest years of the 20th century. The difference this time around is, however, that "eugenics" is used as a derogatory term—not a favorable one. A few researchers, such as the psychologist Richard Lynn, have openly called for eugenic policies, but represent a minority opinion in current scientific and cultural circles. In the realm of bioethics, there are continual questions as to whether new techniques of genetic engineering may allow the alteration of human genetics in ways similar to the goals of early twentieth century eugenicists. The biologist Lee M. Silver has suggested that the technology of reprogenetics may accomplish similar ends, but without coercive, restrictive, or state-driven methods.
 
One of the best known recent cases of attempting to implement a form of eugenics in practice was a "genius sperm bank" (1980-1999) created by Robert Klark Graham, from which nearly 230 children were conceived. The best known donor was Nobel Prize winner William Shockley.
 
At the present time, only a few governments in the world have anything which resemble eugenic programs. In 1994, China passed the "Maternal and Infant Health Care Law" which included mandatory pre-marital screenings for "genetic diseases of a serious nature" and "relevant mental disease." Those who are diagnosed with such diseases are required either to not marry or to agree to "long term contraceptive measures" or to submit to sterilization. A similar screening policy (including pre-natal screening and abortion) intended to reduce the incidence of thalassemia exists on both sides of the island of Cyprus. Since the program's implementation in the 1970s, it has reduced the ratio of children born with the hereditary blood disease from 1 out of every 158 births to almost zero.
 
Lebensborn:
 
Nazi Germany's Lebensborn (fountain of life) plan was a human breeding plan intended to expand the "Aryan race", who were to be the new master race of Europe.
 
Under the plan by Heinrich Himmler, German men were encouraged to produce children with "racially pure" Aryan-looking women. The plan was adopted in 1936, and stated that every SS member should father 4 children. Unmarried mothers had the opportunity of living in special homes and receive financial support, while the children would be adopted.
 
The Lebensborn programme operated mainly in Germany.
 
Kidnapping children from occupied countries
Lebensborn officials were also involved in kidnapping children from occupied countries, e.g. Polish, Czech and French children. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 Polish children were kidnapped, those who after examination were deemed "aryan" enough were then sent, with falsified birth certificates, to selected families, which were told for example that they were adopting children of killed soldiers. Most of those children never returned to their original families and their descendants usually don't even know that they are in some part Poles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
 
Master race:
 
The master race (German: Herrenrasse, Herrenvolk) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and "pure race". It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of "races" placing African Bushmen and Australian Aborigines at the bottom of the hierarchy while white Europeans were at the top. This concept is similar to that of the White supremacy movement.
 
The origins of the Nazi version of the theory of the master race were in 19th century racial theories of Count Arthur de Gobineau, who argued that cultures degenerate when distinct races mix. It was believed at this time that southern European peoples were racially mixed with non-European Moors from across the Mediterranean, while Northern Europeans remained pure. Hence in Nazism the racial ideal was the blond blue-eyed Nordic individual. The term Aryan race was commonly used to name this ideal. The postulated superiority of these people was said to make them born leaders, or a "master race". Other authors included Guido von List (and his associate Lanz von Liebenfels) and British Houston Stewart Chamberlain, all of whom felt that the Germanic race was superior to others, and that given the purification of the German people from the races who were "polluting" it, a new Millenarian age of Aryan god-men would arrive.
 
The term Aryan derives from the ancient peoples who occupied Iran and the Indus Valley. Following the ideas of Gobineau and others, the Nazi theorist Alfred Rosenberg claimed that these were a dynamic warrior people who originated in northern climates, from which they migrated south, eventually reaching India. They were supposed to be the ancestors of the ancient Germanic tribes, who shared their warrior values. Building from Nietzsche (but altering his concepts), Rosenberg claimed that Christianity was an alien Semitic slave-morality inappropriate to the warrior Aryan master race.
 
In Nazi Germany, marriage of an "Aryan" with a Untermensch was forbidden. To maintain the purity of the Nordic master race eugenics was practised. In order to eliminate "defective" citizens, the T-4 Euthanasia Program was administered by Karl Brandt to rid the country of the mentally retarded or those born with genetic deficiencies, as well as those deemed to be racially inferior. Additionally, a program of compulsory sterilization was undertaken and resulted in the forced operations of hundreds of thousands of individuals. Many of these idioms were tranferred and are generally seen as being related to what eventually became known as the Holocaust in popular culture.
 
Most modern geneticists no longer give credence to the eugenics and racial hygiene on which the hierarchical model of race is built. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
 

From Francis Galton, Memories of My Life:
 
Chapter XXI. Race Improvement.
Eugenics -- Passages from my early writings -- Original sin -- Breeding dogs for intelligence -- Great extension of my work by Professor Karl Pearson -- Eugenics laboratory -- Duty towards race improvement
 
THE subject of Race Improvement, or Eugenics, with which I have much occupied myself during the last few years, is a pursuit of no recent interest. I published my views as long ago as 1865, in two articles written in Macmillan's Magazine [20], while preparing materials for my book, Hereditary Genius. But I did not then realise, as now, the. powerful influence of Small Causes upon statistical results. I was too much disposed to think of marriage under some regulation, and not enough of the effects of self-interest and of social and religious sentiment, Popular feeling was not then ripe to accept even the elementary truths of hereditary talent and character, upon which the possibility of Race Improvement depends. Still less was it prepared to consider dispassionately any proposals for practical action. So I laid the subject wholly to one side for many years. Now I see my way better, and an appreciative audience is at last to be had, though it be small. As in most other cases of novel views, the wrong-headedness of objectors to Eugenics has been curious.
 
The most common misrepresentations now are that its methods must be altogether those of compulsory unions, as in breeding animals. It is not so. I think that stern compulsion ought to be exerted to prevent the free propagation of the stock of those who are seriously afflicted by lunacy, feeble- mindedness, habitual criminality, and pauperism, but that is quite different from compulsory marriage. How to restrain ill-omened marriages is a question by itself, whether it should be effected by seclusion, or in other ways yet to be devised that are consistent with a humane and well-informed public opinion. I cannot doubt that our democracy will ultimately refuse consent to that liberty of propagating children which is now allowed to the undesirable classes, but the populace has yet to be taught the true state of these things. A democracy cannot endure unless it be composed of able citizens; therefore it must in self-defence withstand the free introduction of degenerate stock.
 
What I desire is that the importance of eugenic marriages should be reckoned at its just value, neither too high nor too low, and that Eugenics should form one of the many considerations by which marriages are promoted or hindered, as they are by social position, adequate fortune, and similarity of creed. I can believe hereafter that it will be felt as derogatory to a person of exceptionally good stock to marry into an inferior one as it is for a person of high Austrian rank to marry one who has not sixteen heraldic quarterings. I also hope that social recognition of an appropriate kind will be given to healthy, capable, and large families, and that social influence will be exerted towards the encouragement of eugenic marriages.
 
Confusion is often made between statistical and individual results. It sometimes seems to be held seriously that if the effect of a particular union cannot be accurately foretold, the application of the rules of Eugenics is vain. This is not the case. Statistics give us assurance concerning the fate of such or such a ;percentage of a large number of people which, when translated into other terms, is the probability of each of them being affected by it. From the statesman's point of view, where lives are pawns in the game and personal favour is excluded, this information is sufficient. It tells how large a number of undesirables or of desirables can be introduced or not into a population by such and such measures. Whether their names be A, B, or C, or else X, Y, or Z, is of no importance to the "Statistician,"a term that is more or less equivalent to that of "Statesman."
 
In accordance with one principal purpose of these pages, which is to show the fundamental coherence of most of my many inquiries, I will quote several Passages from the above-mentioned articles written in 1865. They expressed then, as clearly as I can do now, the leading principles of Eugenics. They will each be followed by a remark as to how I should wish to modify them.
 
"The power of man over animal life, in producing whatever varieties of form he pleases, is enormously great. It would seem as though the physical structure of future generations was almost as plastic as clay, under the control of the breeder's will. It is my desire to show, more pointedly than, so far as I am aware, has been attempted before, that mental qualities are equally under control."
 
Then follows a discussion of inherited abilities, of the same character as that which was afterwards developed more fully in Hereditary Genius. If I were to re-write the above passage, it would be modified by limiting the power of the breeder to perpetuating and intensifying qualities which have already appeared in the race. The possibility would at the same time be recognised of the unforeseen appearance of "sports" or "mutations" of a kind not hitherto observed, but which for all that may become hereditary. Such in past times may have been the electric organs of certain eels and rays, the illuminating capacity of glow-worms, fire-flies, and inhabitants of deep waters, the venom in certain snakes, and the power of speech in man.
 
After some pages of remarks, the latter of them on the physical attributes of very able men, the article continues :--
 
"Most notabilities have been great eaters and excellent digesters, on literally the same principle that the furnace which can raise more steam than is usual for one of its size must burn more freely and well than is common. Most great men are vigorous animals with exuberant powers and an extreme devotion to a cause. There is no reason to suppose that in breeding for the highest order of intellect we should produce a sterile or a feeble race."
 
I should now alter the last sentence to "There is no reason to doubt that a very high order of intellect might be bred with little, if any, sacrifice of fertility or vigour."
 
"Many forms of civilisation have been peculiarly unfavourable to the hereditary transmission of rare talent. None of them were more prejudicial to it than that of the Middle Ages, when almost every youth of genius was attracted into the Church and enrolled in the rank of a celibate clergy."
 
This argument was largely developed in Hereditary Genius.
 
"Another great hindrance to it is a Costly tone of society, like that of our own, where it becomes a folly for a rising man to encumber himself with domestic expenses, which custom exacts, and which are larger than his resources are able to meet. Here also genius is celibate, at least during the best period of manhood.
 
"A spirit of clique is not bad. I understand that in Germany it is very much the custom for professors to marry the [sisters] or daughters of other professors, and I have some reason to believe, but am anxious for fuller information before I can feel sure of it, that the enormous intellectual digestion of German literary men, which far exceeds that of the corresponding Class of our own countrymen, may, in some considerable degree, be due to this practice."
 
I have not even yet obtained the information desired in the last paragraph, the correspondents who partly promised to give it not having done so. As many members of our House of Lords marry the daughters of millionaires, it is quite conceivable that our Senate may in time become characterised by a more than common share of shrewd business capacity, possibly also by a lower standard of commercial probity, than at present.
 
"So far as beauty is concerned . . . it is not so very long ago in England that it was thought quite natural that the strongest lance at the tournament should win the fairest or the noblest lady. The lady was the prize to be tilted for. She rarely Objected to the arrangement, because her vanity was gratified by the gclal of the proceeding. Now history is justly charged with a tendency to repeat itself. We may therefore reasonably look forward to the possibility, I do not say the probability, of some such practice of competition. What an extraordinary effect might be produced on our race if its object was to unite in marriage those who possessed the finest and most Suitable natures, mental, moral, and physical!"
 
The last paragraph must of course be interpreted in the semi-jocular sense in which it was written.
 
I may here speak of some attempts by myself, made hitherto in too desultory a way, to obtain materials for a "Beauty-Map" of the British Isles. Whenever I have occasion to classify the persons I meet into three classes, "good, medium, bad," I use a needle mounted as a pricker, wherewith to prick holes, unseen, in a piece of paper, torn rudely into a cross With a long leg. I use its upper end for "good," the cross-arm for "medium," the lower end for "bad." The prick-holes keep distinct, and are easily read off at leisure. The object, place, and date are written On the paper. I used this plan for my beauty data, classifying the girls I passed in streets or elsewhere as attractive, indifferent, or repellent. Of course this was a purely individual estimate, bat it was consistent, judging from the conformity of different attempts in the same population. I found London to rank highest for beauty; Aberdeen lowest.
 
In another article, after some further discussion, I say :
 
"I hence conclude that the improvement of the breed of mankind is no insuperable difficulty. If everybody were to agree on the improvement of the race of man being a matter of the very utmost importance, and if the theory of the hereditary transmission of qualities in men was as thoroughly understood as it is in the case of our domestic animals, I see no absurdity in supposing that, in some way or other, the improvement would be carried into effect.
 
"Most persons seem to have an idea that a new element, specially fashioned in heaven, and not transmitted by simple descent, is introduced into the body of every new-born infant. It is impossible this should be true, unless there exists some property or quality in man that is not transmissible by descent. But the terms talent and character are exhaustive; they include the whole of man's spiritual nature, so far as we are able to understand it. No other class of qualities is known to exist, that we might suppose to have been interpolated from on high."
 
The article concludes as follows :--
 
"It is a common theme of moralists of many creeds, that man is born with an imperfect nature. He has lofty aspirations, but there is a weakness in his disposition that incapacitates him from carrying his nobler purposes into effect. He sees that some particular course of action is his duty, and should be his delight; but his inclinations are fickle and base, and do not conform to his better judgment. The whole moral nature of man is tainted with sin, which prevents him from doing the things he knows to be right.
 

"I venture to offer an explanation of this apparent anomaly which seems perfectly satisfactory from a scientific point of view. It is neither more nor less than that the development of our nature, under Darwin's law of Natural Selection, has not yet overtaken the development of our religious civilisation. Man was barbarous but yesterday, and therefore it is not to be expected that the natural aptitudes of his race should already have become moulded into accordance with his very recent advance. We men of the present centuries are like animals suddenly transplanted among new conditions of climate and of food; our instincts fail us under the altered circumstances.
 
"My theory is confirmed by the fact that the members of old civilisations are far less sensible than those newly converted from barbarism, of their nature being inadequate to their moral needs. The conscience of a Negro is aghast at his own wild impulsive nature, and is easily stirred by a preacher; but it is scarcely possible to ruffle the self-complacency of a steady-going Chinaman.
 

"The sense of Original Sin would show, according to my theory, not that man was fallen from a high estate, but that he was rapidly rising from a low one. It would therefore confirm the conclusion that has been arrived at by every independent line of ethnological research, that our forefathers were utter savages . . . and that after myriads of years of barbarism our race has but very recently grown to be civilised and religious."
 
The above paragraphs appeared also in Hereditary Genius.
 
These views published by me forty-five years ago are still up to date, owing to the slow advance of the popular mind in its appreciation of the force of heredity. My fault in other parts of these articles was a tendency to overrate the speed with which a great improvement of the race of mankind might, theoretically, be effected. I had not then made out the law of Regression. With this qualification the above extracts express my present views.
 
Before concluding with these magazine articles, I will make yet another extract in reference to a subject which a friend urged upon me quite recently as a worthy subject of experiment, namely, the breeding of animals for intelligence. The following extract shows that I considered it long ago. I have frequently since thought of making an attempt to carry it out, but it would have occupied more time and money than I could have spared. As it is just possible that the
idea may now catch the fancy of some one, and induce him to make a trial, I reprint the passage here :-
 
''So far as I am aware, no animals have ever been bred for general intelligence. Special aptitudes are thoroughly controlled by the breeder. He breeds Dogs that point, that retrieve, that fondle or that bite; but no one has ever yet attempted to breed for high general intellect, irrespective of all other qualifications. It would be a most interesting subject for an attempt.
 
"We hear constantly of prodigies of dogs, whose very intelligence makes them of little value as slaves. When they are wanted, they are apt to be absent on their own errands. They are too critical of their master's conduct. For instance, an intelligent dog shows marked contempt for an unsuccessful sportsman. He will follow nobody along a road that leads to a well-known tedious errand. He does not readily forgive a man who wounds his self-esteem. He is often a dexterous thief and a sad hypocrite. For these reasons an over-intelligent dog is not an object of particular desire, and therefore I suppose no one has ever thought of encouraging a breed of wise dogs. But it would be a most interesting occupation for a country philosopher to pick up the cleverest dogs he could hear of, and mate them together, generation after generation--breeding purely for intellectual power, and disregarding shape, size, and every other quality."
 
The phrase "regardless of every other quality" is too strong, some regard should be paid to the physique and to the character of the dogs. Perhaps twenty females, ten males, and a fluctuating population of puppies would be enough for an experiment. The cost of this would not be very great, and would be sensibly diminished in time by money derived from the sale of pups.
 
The idea of the improvement of the human race was again mooted in 1884, and the term Eugenics was then first applied to it in my Human Faculty. Afterwards it was strongly emphasised in my "Huxley Lecture" before the Anthropological Institute in 1901 [161], on the "Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the existing conditions of Law and Sentiment."
 
Great steps towards estimating the values of the influences concerned in effecting it had been made in the meantime by Professor Karl Pearson. 'He took up my work on Correlation [104], vastly extending its theory, and adding largely to the data. I had gone no further than to obtain simple results based on the Gaussian law of distribution; he worked out those results with great mathematical skill and elaboration. He also generalised them so as to deal with other laws of distribution than the Gaussian.
 
Moreover, Professor Karl Pearson established a Biometric Laboratory in University College, where accurate computations are made, and whence a quarterly publication, Biometrika, is issued. It was established by him and Professor Weldon, whose untimely death has been a deep sorrow to many friends and a serious loss to the science of heredity. I also was nominally connected with Biometrika as "Consulting Editor."
 
The ground had thus become more or less prepared for further advance; so, after talking over the matter with the authorities of the University of London, and obtaining their ready concurrence, I supplied sufficient funds to allow of a small establishment for the furtherance of Eugenics. The University provided rooms, and gave the sanction of their name and various facilities, and I provided the salaries for a Research Fellow and for a Research Scholar. The Eugenics Laboratory of the University of London is now situated in University College, in connection with Professor Karl Pearson's biometric laboratory, and 'I am glad to say he has consented to take it, for the present at least, under his very able superintendence; as I am too old and infirm now to be able to look properly after it. Valuable memoirs are being published by the Laboratory from time to time, and the young institution promises to be a permanent success.
 
The authorities of the newly established Sociological Society were disposed to take up the subject of Race Improvement, so I gave lectures at two of their meetings in 1904 and 1905, which are published in Vols I. and II. of the Sociological Papers [169]. The subjects were on, "Eugenics, its Scope and Aims," "Restrictions in Marriage," "Studies in National Eugenics," and "Eugenics as a Factor in Religion." Eugenics is officially defined in the Minutes of the University of London as "the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally."
 
Skilful and cautious statistical treatment is needed in-most of the many inquiries upon whose results the methods of Eugenics will rest. A full account of the inquiries is necessarily technical and dry, but the results are not, and a "Eugenics Education Society" has been recently established to popularise those results. At the request of its Committee I have lately joined it as Hon. President, and hope to aid its work so far as the small powers that an advanced age still leaves intact may permit.
 
A true philanthropist concerns himself not only with society as a whole, but also with as many of the individuals who compose it as the range of his affections can include. If a man devotes himself solely to the good of a nation as a whole, his tastes must be impersonal and his conclusions so far heartless, deserving the ill title of "dismal" with which Carlyle labelled statistics. If, on the other hand, he attends only to certain individuals in whom' he happens to take an interest, he becomes guided by favouritism and is oblivious of the rights of others and of the futurity of the race. Charity refers to the individual; Statesmanship to the nation; Eugenics cares for both.
 
It is known that a considerable part of the huge stream of British charity furthers by indirect and unsuspected ways the production of the Unfit; it is most desirable that money and other attention bestowed on harmful forms of charity should be diverted to the production and well-being of the Fit. For clearness of explanation we may divide newly married couples into three classes, with respect to the probable civic worth of their offspring. There would be a small class of "desirables," a large class of "passables," of whom nothing more will be said here, and a small class of "undesirables." It would clearly be advantageous to the country if social and moral support as well as timely material help were extended to the desirables, and not monopolised as it is now apt to be by the undesirables.
 
I take Eugenics very seriously, feeling that its principles ought to become one of the dominant motives in a civilised nation, much as if they were one of its religious tenets. I have often expressed myself in this sense, and will conclude this book by briefly reiterating my views.
 
Individuals appear to me as partial detachments from the infinite ocean of Being, and this world as a stage on which Evolution takes place, principally hitherto by means of Natural Selection, which achieves the good of the whole with scant regard to that of the individual.
 
Man is gifted with pity and other kindly feelings; he has also the power of preventing many kinds of suffering. I conceive it to fall well within his province to replace Natural Selection by other processes that are more merciful and not less effective.
 
This is precisely the aim of Eugenics. Its first object is to check the birth-rate of the Unfit, instead of allowing them to come into being, though doomed in large numbers to perish prematurely. The second object is the improvement of the race by furthering the productivity of the Fit by early marriages and healthful rearing of their children. Natural Selection rests upon excessive production and wholesale destruction; Eugenics on bringing no more individuals into the world than can be properly cared for, and those only of the best stock.
 
Hereditary Genius [52] made its mark at the time, though subjected to much criticism, no small part of which was captious or shallow, and therefore unimportant. The verdict which I most eagerly waited for was that of Charles'Darwin, whom I ranked far above all other authorities on such a matter. His letter, given below, made me most happy. ,,
 

DOWN, BECKENHAM, KENT, S.E.
 
3rd December
 
"MY DEAR GALTON,--I have only read about 50 pages of your book (to Judges), but I must exhale myself, else something will go wrong in my inside. I do not think I ever in all my life read anything more interesting and original--and how Well and clearly you put every point! George, who has finished the book, and who expressed himself in just the same terms, tells me that the earlier chapters are nothing in interest to the later ones! It will take me some time to get to these latter chapters, as it is read aloud to me by my wife, who is also much interested. You have made a convert of an opponent in one sense, for I have always maintained that, excepting fools, men did not differ much in intellect, only in zeal and hard work; and I still think this is an eminently important difference. I congratulate you on producing what I am convinced will prove a memorable work. I look forward with intense interest to each reading, but it sets me thinking so much that I find it very hard work; but that is wholly the fault of my brain and not of your beautifully clear style.--Yours most sincerely,
Jeremy Condick. jpcondick@ntlworld.com
 
 

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